New Bachet de Méziriac Three Step Staircase and Knight Methods and Squares (Part II)
Regular and NonRegular Squares
A Discussion of the New Methods
An important general principle for generating odd magic squares by the Méziriac method is that the center cell must always contain the middle number of
the series of numbers used, i.e. a number which is equal to one half the sum of the first and last numbers of the series, or
½(n^{2} + 1). The properties of these regular or associated Méziriac squares are:
 That the sum of the horizontal rows,
vertical columns and corner diagonals are equal to the magic sum S.
 The sum of any two numbers that are diagonally equidistant from the center (DENS) is equal to
n^{2} + 1, i.e., or twice the number in the center cell and are complementary to each other.
The 5x5 and 7x7 regular Méziriac squares are shown below as examples:
3  16  9 
22  15 
20  8  21 
14  2 
7  25  13 
1  19 
24  12  5 
18  6 
11  4  17 
10  23 


4  29  12 
37  20 
45  28 
35  11  36 
19  44 
27  3 
10  42  18 
43  26 
2  34 
41  17  49 
25  1 
33  9 
16  48  24 
7  32 
8  40 
47  23  6 
31  14 
39  15 
22  5  30 
13  38 
21  46 

Méziriac squares are normally contructed using a stepwise approach where each subsequent number is added consecutively one cell at a time.
In this new method each subsequent number is added in a stepwise 3step manner.
In addition, n odd squares may be constructed with the initial number 1 on either of two broken diagonals shown below in
light blue or yellow separated by symmetry by a
light grey diagonal for a 5x5 or 7x7 square.
The set of 5x5 Méziriac Broken Diagonals
1  
 1 

  1 
 1 
 1  
1  
1   1 
 
 1  
 1 


The set of 7x7 Méziriac Broken Diagonals
1  

 
1  
  
 1 
 1 
  
1  
1  
  1 
 1 
 
 1  
1  
 
1   1 
 
 
 1  
 
 1 

These new Méziriac squares, which I will label
Mn^{*} (center cell#) [3S,2R or 2U] where (Mn^{*} signifies a three step nxn
Méziriac square with the center cell number of the square and breaking either 2 cells right or
2 cells up.
In the second method, a Knight,
the squares are labeled MKn^{*} (center cell#) [3S,(3D,1L)] where (Mn^{*} signifies a
three step nxn Méziriac square with the center cell number of the square and breaking using either a
3 down, 1 left knight move or a
MKn^{*} (center cell#) [3S,(3L,1D)] using a
3 left, 1 down knight move.
 Every number on the main diagonal is represented at least once in this type of square.
 For Méziriac odd squares where n is divisible by 3, i.e., 3(2n + 1)
are nonmagic, while odd squares where n is divisible by 5 are semimagic. All others are magic.
 For Méziriac Knight squares odd squares n is divisible by 3 are nonmagic and those where n is divisible by 5 are semimagic.
All others are magic.
Construction of a Regular 5x5 Three Step Méziriac Magic Square
 To generate the regular square, M5^{*} 13 [3S,2R],
place a 1 to the right of the center of the third row of a 5x5 square and fill in cells by advancing diagonally upwards to the right in steps of 3 until blocked by a
previous number.
 Move two cells right.
 Repeat the process until the square is filled, as shown below in squares 14.

⇒ 

⇒ 
3
5   6 
 12 
16  9  
15  3 
7   13 
1  
 11  4 
 10 
14  2  
8  

⇒ 
4 M5^{*} 13 [3S,2R]
5  18  6 
24  12 
16  9  22 
15  3 
7  25  13 
1  19 
23  11  4 
17  10 
14  2  20 
8  21 

The Four other Regular 5x5 Three Step Méziriac Magic Squares
The fully constructed nonregular squares shown below all have left diagonal S values of 65.
A M5^{*} 14 [3S,2R]
1  19  7 
25  13 
17  10  23 
11  4 
8  21  14 
2  20 
24  12  5 
18  6 
15  3  16 
9  22 


B M5^{*} 11 [3S,2R]
3  16  9 
22  15 
19  7  25 
13  1 
10  23  11 
4  17 
21  14  2 
20  8 
12  5  18 
6  24 


C M5^{*} 15 [3S,2R]
2  20  8 
21  14 
18  6  24 
12  5 
9  22  15 
3  16 
25  13  1 
19  7 
11  4  17 
10  23 


D M5^{*} 12 [3S,2R]
4  17  10 
23  11 
20  8  21 
14  2 
6  24  12 
5  18 
22  15  3 
16  9 
13  1  19 
7  25 

The Regular 7x7 Three Step Méziriac Magic Square
The construction of the 7x7 regular Méziriac square M7^{*} 25 [3S,2R] from the
broken yellow diagonal is shown below again in steps of 3.
1
2   10 
 
 
 12  
 
 4 
14   15 
 
6  
  
 1 
 9 
  
3  
11  
  5 
 13 
 
 7  
8  
 

⇒ 
2
2   10 
 18 
 26 
29  12  
20  
28  4 
14   15 
 23 
6  
 17  
25  1 
 9 
19   27 
3  
11  
 22  5 
 13 
 21 
24  7  
8  
16  

⇒ 
3 M7^{*} 25 [3S,2R]
2  34  10 
42  18 
43  26 
29  12  37 
20  45 
28  4 
14  39  15 
47  23 
6  31 
41  17  49 
25  1 
33  9 
19  44  27 
3  35 
11  36 
46  22  5 
30  13 
38  21 
24  7  32 
8  40 
16  48 

Construction of a Nonregular 5x5 Three step Méziriac Knight Magic Square
5x5 Squares
 To generate the nonregular square, MK5^{*} 15 [3S,(3D,1L)],
place a 1 to the right of the center of the third row of a 5x5 square and fill in cells by advancing diagonally upwards to the right in steps of 3 until blocked by
a previous number.
 Move three cells down one cell left (the knight break).
 Repeat the process until the square is filled, as shown below in squares 15.

⇒ 
2
5   7 
 14 
 10  
12  3 
8   15 
1  
 13  4 
 6 
11  2  
9  

⇒ 
3
5  16  7 
 14 
19  10  
12  3 
8   15 
1  17 
 13  4 
20  6 
11  2  18 
9  

⇒ 
4 MK5^{*} 15 [3S,(3D,1L)]
5  16  7 
23  14 
19  10  21 
12  3 
8  24  15 
1  17 
22  13  4 
20  6 
11  2  18 
9  25 

The Other Four Regular and Nonregular 5x5 Three Step Méziriac Knight Magic Squares

A MK5^{*} 11 [3S,(3D,1L)]
1  17  8 
24  15 
20  6  22 
13  4 
9  25  11 
2  18 
23  14  5 
16  7 
12  3  19 
10  21 


B MK5^{*} 13 [3S,(3D,1L)]
3  19  10 
21  12 
17  8  24 
15  1 
6  22  13 
4  20 
25  11  2 
18  9 
14  5  16 
7  23 


C MK5^{*} 12 [3S,(3D,1L)]
2  18  9 
25  11 
16  7  23 
14  5 
10  21  12 
3  19 
24  15  1 
17  8 
13  4  20 
6  22 


D MK5^{*} 14 [3S,(3D,1L)]
4  20  6 
22  13 
18  9  25 
11  2 
7  23  14 
5  16 
21  12  3 
19  10 
15  1  17 
8  24 

A NonRegular 7x7 Three Step Méziriac Knight Square
The construction of a 7x7 nonregular 3 Step Méziriac Knight square MK7^{*} 28 [3S,(3D,1L)]
from the broken yellow diagonal similar to the method above is shown below again in steps of 3, followed by a 3 down,1 left
knight break. The last table shows also the sums (S) of the left main diagonal for all the 7x7 regular and nonregular squares in this set.
1
2   11 
 20 
 
 13  
15  
 4 
8   17 
 
6  
 19  
 1 
 10 
21   
3  
12  
  5 
 14 
 16 
 7  
9  
18  

⇒ 
2
2  31  11 
 20 
 22 
33  13  
15  
24  4 
8   17 
 26 
6  35 
 19  
28  1 
30  10 
21   23 
3  32 
12  
 25  5 
34  14 
36  16 
27  7  29 
9  
18  

⇒ 
3
2  31  11 
40  20 
49  22 
33  13  42 
15  44 
24  4 
8  37  17 
46  26 
6  35 
39  19  48 
28  1 
30  10 
21  43  23 
3  32 
12  41 
45  25  5 
34  14 
36  16 
27  7  29 
9  38 
18  47 


7x7 Cell Values and S of K[3S,(3D,1L)]
Center Value  S + d  d 
23  175  0 
27  175  0 
24  175  0 
28  175  0 
25  175  0 
22  175  0 
26  175  0 

The Plane of Méziriac Squares
At this point it may be said that alternatively these squares may be constructed using a plane of four squares. For example using the 7x7 square
MK7^{*} 28 [3S,(3D,1L)] one can move up the right diagonal on a plane of four
MK7^{*} 28 [3S,(3D,1L)] and generate
the complete set of 7 squares as is shown in Part IV of the new Bachet de Méziriac method.
This completes this section on 3 step regular and nonregular Méziriac squares (Part II). To return to homepage.
Copyright © 2008 by Eddie N Gutierrez. EMail: Fiboguti89@Yahoo.com