A New Procedure for Magic Squares (Part I)
Zig Zag Cross Modified Squares and MaskGenerated Squares
A Discussion of the New Method
Magic squares such as the Loubère have a center cell which must always contain the middle number of
a series of consecutive numbers, i.e. a number which is equal to one half the sum of the first and last numbers of the series, or
½(n^{2} + 1). The properties of these regular or associated Loubère squares are:
 That the sum of the horizontal rows,
vertical columns and corner diagonals are equal to the magic sum S.
 The sum of any two numbers that are diagonally equidistant from the center (DENS) is equal to
n^{2} + 1, i.e., or twice the number in the center cell and are complementary to each other.
This site will explore new squares which are derived in a different manner from the standard Loubère approach.
A 5x5 Loubère square which is produced using the
staircase method is shown below in I. If all the even numbers in this square are exchanged for their complements the result is II:
I
17  24  1 
8  15 
23  5  7 
14  16 
4  6  13 
20  22 
10  12  19 
21  3 
11  18  25 
2  9 


II
17  2  1 
18  15 
23  5  7 
12  10 
22  20  13 
6  4 
16  14  19 
21  3 
11  8  25 
24  9 

This is equivalent to using the following complementary table where the number sequence is 1 → 24 → 3 → 22...13 → 12 → 15...25.
1  2 
3  4 
5  6 
7  8 
9  10 
11  12 

 13 
25  24 
23  22 
21  20 
19  18 
17  16 
15  14 

Square II, however, is not magic using the standard Loubère approach.
It was shown in Part I of new Cross and MaskGenerated Methods how to construct new squares.
In this modified method the numbers are added in a different order by zig zagging across two adjacent rows, except for the center row
whereby the numbers are added straight, i.e., no zig zagging. First the odd numbers are added starting at one end, then the
even numbers starting at the other end to produce A. Adding the latter numbers in a slightly modified form produces B. The yellow cell shows where to place the next number
after filling in the center row. Construction of both these squares are shown below. In addition, 4n + 1 squares
such as the 5x5 produce maskgenerated squares while 4n + 3 squares such as the 7x7 do not.
A
1  22  5 
18  9 
24  3  20  7  16 
11  12  13 
14  15 
10  19  6 
23  2 
17  8  21 
4  25 


B
1  18  5 
22  9 
16  3  20 
7  24 
11  12  13 
14  15 
10  19  6 
23  2 
17  8  21 
4  25 

Both these squares after manipulation produce two types of magic squares. One by the manipulation of individual cells, the other by the use of a symmetrical
C_{2} mask (symmetrical by 180° rotation) of n^{2} numbers (see Method II below).
Moreover, only starting with the squares with regular readout such as A produces an internal cross, When n is 4n + 1
the crosses generated are ½(n^{2} + 1) along the center row and
½(n^{2} + 1) ± ½(n  1) along
the center column.
When n is 4n + 3 the crosses are three cells across and sum up to
3(½)(n^{2} + 1) ± ½(n  3).
The magic squares produced have only partially sequential order and
not all the numbers from 1 to n^{2} are present. Because of the manipulation numbers greater than
n^{2}or less than 1 are generated.
In addition, it will also be shown that the sums of these squares follow the new sum equation as was shown in the
New block Loubère Method:
S = ½(n^{3} ± an)
Construction of 5x5 Magic Squares
Method I: Reading zig zag from left to right  generation of a cross square
 Construct Square 1 by adding odd numbers in a zig zag manner to the cells. At the center row proceed straight (no zig zag) then swich back upon reaching 17 (lower left).
 Add the even numbers in reverse manner starting at the lower right, follow the green path, again switching to straight
upon reaching the center row. Add 16 to the rightmost cell of the second row and continue adding numbers in a zig zag manner (Square 2).
 Adjust the center column by adding and subtracting numbers from the selected cells to generate 2. For example, adding 10 to 5 and subtracting 10 from 21 keeps
the center column at 65.
 Adjust the center row by adding and subtracting numbers from the selected cells to generate 3 where the center row consists of all 13 and the center column of
15 and 11 which average out to 13.
 The nonyellow group of four cells sum to 50 and 54.
1
1   5 
 9 
 3  
7  
11   13 
 15 
 19  
23  
17   21 
 25 

⇒ 
2
 65 
1  22  5 
18  9  55 
24  3  20 
7  16  70 
11  12  13 
14  15  65 
10  19  6 
23  2  60 
17  8  21 
4  25  75 
63  64  65 
66  67  65 

⇒ 
3
 65 
1  22  15 
18  9  65 
24  3  15 
7  16  65 
13  13  13 
13  13  65 
10  19  11 
23  2  65 
17  8  11 
4  25  65 
65  65  65 
65  65  65 

Method II: Reading zig zag from left to right  use of mask
 Construct Square 1 by adding odd numbers in a zig zag manner to the cells.
 Add the even numbers in reverse manner starting at the lower right and following the green path. Add 16 to the leftmost
cell of the second row and continue adding numbers in a zig zag manner (Square 2).
 Adjust the center row by adding and subtracting numbers from the selected cells to generate 3, containing duplicate cells in
light blue.
 Use the mask A consisting of the number 1 to remove duplicates. Where the numbers intersect with the numbers of square 2
add the appropriate factor of
n^{2}, 25 for "1" and 50 for "2".
 Addition of the right factor gives square 3 with S = ½(n^{3} + 31n) and the
modification of 13 numbers.
1
1   5 
 9 
 3  
7  
11   13 
 15 
 19  
23  
17   21 
 25 

⇒ 
2
 65 
1  18  5 
22  9  55 
16  3  20 
7  24  70 
11  12  13 
14  15  65 
10  19  6 
23  2  60 
17  8  21 
4  25  75 
55  60  65 
70  75  65 

⇒ 
3
 65 
11  18  5 
22  9  65 
16  3  20 
2  24  65 
11  12  13 
14  15  65 
10  24  6 
23  2  65 
17  8  21 
4  15  65 
65  65  65 
65  65  65 

+ 
Mask A
1   1 
1  
  
1  2 
 1  1 
1  
2  1  
 
 1  1 
 1 

⇒ 
4
 140 
36  18  30 
47  9  140 
16  3  20 
27  74  140 
11  37  38 
39  15  140 
60  49  6 
23  2  140 
17  33  46 
4  40  140 
140  140  140 
140  140  140 

This completes this section on a new zig zag 5x5 Cross and MaskGenerated Methods (Part I). The next section deals with
new zig zag 9x9 Cross and MaskGenerated Methods (Part II). To return to homepage.
Copyright © 2010 by Eddie N Gutierrez. EMail: Fiboguti89@Yahoo.com