TABLE OF RIGHT DIAGONALS GENERAL METHOD

GENERATION OF RIGHT DIAGONALS FOR MAGIC SQUARE OF SQUARES (Part IVD)

Picture of a square

Square of Squares Tables

Andrew Bremner's article on squares of squares included the 3x3 square:

Bremmer's square
5824621272
942113222
972822742

The numbers in the right diagonal as the tuple (972,1132,1272) appears to have come out of the blue. But I will show that this sequence is part of a larger set of tuples having the same property, i.e. the first number in the tuple when added to a difference (Δ) gives the second square in the tuple and when this same (Δ) is added to the second square produces a third square. All these tuple sequences can be used as entries into the right diagonal of a magic square.

We will show a general method for generating the squares for a right diagonal of a magic square. Beginning with the the tuple (1,b1, c1) we can generate the tuple (a, b, c) which when squared gives the diagonal numbers. Initially either b1 or c1 will be equal to ± k where k is any natural number 1,2,3,4.... Again the end result is that a12 + b12 + c123b120 = S is converted to a2 + b2 + c23b2 = 0 which is a necessary condition for the square to be magic.

To summarize the tuples of Table II below will be used as entries into a right diagonal of a magic square. Knowing the difference (b2a2) or (c2b2) will give us a value Δ which can be used to produce other entries into the magic square. To date only one magic square containing 7 entries has been found. Most other squares will contain 6 entries.

As to the reason for the picture of a square, the entries to the square occur as three tuples,viz, (a,b,c), (l,m,n) and (x,y,z) showing their connectivity. In addition, six or more of these entries are present as their squares.

Generation of Tables where b1 = 65

  1. The object of this exercise is to generate a Table I with a set of tuples that obey the rule: a12 + b12 + c123b120 and convert these tuples into a second set of tuples (Table II) that obey the rule: a2 + b2 + c23b2 = 0.
  2. In addition, we need to know two numbers e and g where g = 2e which when added to the b1 and c1 numbers of Table I, produce the next line of numbers (n + 1) in the next row of Table I. The number a1 will always be 1.
  3. Two other numbers f and d are calculated using the equation
    f = [2e2n2 + (4c1 − 4b1) en +(1 − 2b12 + c12)] / {2(2b1 − c1 − 1)}
    where n is the line number of the tables. f can also be generated directly from Table II from S/d. However, the value of d is equal to the denominator of the general equation above.
  4. Finally Δs are calculated by taking the difference in Table II between (b2a2) or (c2b2), and the results placed under the Δ column. Both differences must be the same.
  5. As an example we begin with the tuple (1,65,1), where a1 = 1, b1 = 65 and c1 = 1 and use the equation to generate f.
    f = [2e2n2 + (4 − 260)en − 8448] / 2× (128) = [2e2n2 − 256en − 8448] / (256)
    Setting e = 16 and g = 32 affords f = 2n2 − 16n − 33
    Substituting for f in (b) gives
    a = (2n2 −16n − 32 )
    b = (2n2 + 32)
    c = (2n2 + 16n − 32)
  6. Substituting the appropriate n into the equations for a, b, and c produces Table II below. Using a computer program and the requisite calculations produced the tables below. As can be seen taking the value of f from the middle table and adding to a1, b1, c1, produced a, b, c, respectively of Table II.
  
n
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Table I
a1 b1 c1
1651
18133
19765
111397
1129129
1145161
1161193
1177225
1193257
1209289
1225321
1241353
1257385
  
f = S/d
-33
-47
-57
-63
-65
-63
-57
-47
-33
-15
7
33
63
Table II
a b c
-3232-32
-4634-14
-56408
-625034
-646464
-628298
-56104136
-46130178
-32160224
-14194274
8232328
34274386
64320448
  
Δ
0
-960
-1536
-1344
0
2880
7680
14784
24576
37440
53760
73920
90304


The magic square A was found by Bremner and has 7 square terms with the magic sum (Sm) 541875. Two other examples are B and C having the right diagonal tuple (736, 1184, 1504) and (2386, 3074, 3634)as their squares. The magic sum, Sm, for these cases are 4205568 and 28348428, respectively and the ns are 24 and 39, respectively.

Magic square A
373228925652
3607214252232
20525272222121
  
Magic square B
9282108236815042
2802268811842322
7362131221942528
  
Magic square C
201821107014836342
18583108307425622
238622798214826628

This concludes Part IVD. To go back to Part IVC. To continue to Part IVE which treats tuples of the type (1,±1,1) and (1,1,±1).
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Copyright © 2012 by Eddie N Gutierrez. E-Mail: Fiboguti89@Yahoo.com