MAGIC SQUARES WHEEL METHOD(A1):VARIANT 1

Picture of a wheel

A Discussion of the Magic Square Wheel Method

Construction of these magic squares requires is an approach which differs from the traditional step methods such as the Loubère and Méziriac. The magic square is constructed as follows using a complimentary table as a guide.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
13
25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14
  1. The left diagonal is filled with the group of numbers ½ (n2-n+2) to ½(n2+n) in consecutive order (top left corner to the right lower corner) from the numbers listed in the complementary table described above, for example using n = 5. For a 5x5 square the numbers in the left diagonal correspond to 11 → 12 → 13 → 14 → 15 (Square A1).
  2. Add the right diagonal in reverse order from bottom left corner to the right upper corner choosing only from the pair {3,4} (as in the little square below) to give Square A2.
  3. 3 4
     
    23 22
  4. This is followed by the central column from the pairs {5,6} (Square A3) in regular order.
  5. Then by the central row from the pairs {1,2} in reverse order (Square A4). We now have a partial square with not all sums equal to 65.
  6. To fill up the rest of the square we can also use a color scheme whereby the difference of the partial sums is subtracted from S = 65. This gives the last column/row which when crossed togethr gives a yellow cell. It is into this cell that the initial number is placed. See below for more information.
  7. The result of these operations figuratively speaking resembles the hub and spokes of a wheel where the cells in color correspond to the spoke and hub of the wheel.
  8. A1
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    A2
    11 23
    12 22
    13
    4 14
    3 15
    A3
    11 5 23
    12 6 22
    13
    4 20 14
    3 21 15
    A4
    65
    11 5 23 3926
    12 6 22 4025
    25 24 13 2 1 650
    4 20 14 3827
    3 21 15 3926
    394065 38 3965
    26 25 0 27 26
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
    13
    25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14
  9. Fill in the spoke portions of the square with the four pairs that are left over (Square A5 and A6). This is done as follows:
    Use the small squares (from the complementary table) as an aid in in how to place the adjacent pair of numbers (in white), which may be placed in either a clockwise or anticlockwise manner as shown below:
  10. 7 8 7 8
    19 18 19 18
A5
65
11 7 5 19 23 65
12 6 22 40
25 24 13 2 1 65
4 20 14 38
3 18 21 8 15 65
396565 65 3965
A6
65
11 7 5 19 23 65
9 12 6 22 16 65
25 24 13 2 1 65
17 4 20 14 10 65
3 18 21 8 15 65
656565 65 6565

A "spoke" (as used above) consists of n - ½(n + 1) pairs of numbers including their complements but not the hub. For example, the set {(1,2)(3,4)(5,6)} and their complements forms a triad of consecutive adjacent numbers, which are grouped together, as shown in the complementary table above, to form the three other "spokes".

The remainder of the cells (the "non-spoke" numbers) are then subsequently filled using adjacent complementary pairs and are added semi-associatively as opposed to the "spoke" pairs which are associative, i.e diametrically equidistant from the center cell and are filled in as in A5 and A6.

The other two examples of 5x5 magic squares

The following contains the other two 5x5 conformations wheel magic squares (by analysis using of the ad hoc equation ¼ (n2-4n + 7)) and their accompanying complementary tables to show that the numbers must be taken in groups of pairs for the square to be magic. (Note that each combination of a 5x5 square requires three of these conformations).

A7
11 1 7 25 21
9 12 8 20 16
23 22 13 4 3
17 6 18 14 10
5 24 19 2 15
A8
11 1 9 25 19
3 12 10 18 22
21 20 13 6 5
23 8 16 14 4
7 24 17 2 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
13 13
25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14

One example of a 7x7 magic square

Since each comformation of a 7x7 wheel magic square can produce 7 wheel comformations, we'll take the first subset {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} and their complements as an example.

  1. The magic square is first constructed by filling in the left diagonal with a group of numbers from the 7x7 complentary table below. For a 7x7 square the numbers in the left diagonal correspond to 22 → 23 → 24 → 25 → 26 → 28 → 28. (Square B1)
  2. Add the right diagonal in reverse order from bottom left corner to the right upper corner choosing the pairs {4,5,6} to give Square B2.
  3. This is followed by addition of the central column pairs {7,8,9) to give Square B3.
  4. Then by addition of the central column pairs {1,2,3) in reverse order to give Square B4.
  5. B1
    22
    23
    24
    25
    26
    27
    28
    B2
    22 46
    23 45
    24 44
    25
    6 26
    5 27
    4 28
    B3
    22 7 46
    23 8 45
    24 9 44
    25
    6 41 26
    5 42 27
    4 43 28
    B4
    22 7 46
    23 8 45
    24 9 44
    49 48 47 25 3 2 1
    6 41 26
    5 42 27
    4 43 28
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
    25
    49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26
    Parity Table
    ROW or COLUMNSUMΔ 175PAIR OF NUMBERSPARITY (odd or even)
    1 75 100 50+50 or 51+49 E + E
    2 76 99 49+50 O + E
    3 77 98 49+49 O + O
    5 73 102 51+51 O + O
    6 74 101 50+51 O + E
    7 75 100 50+50 or 51+49 E + E
  6. Do a summation of each column, row and diagonal on B4. The magic sum S is 175.
  7. Set up a parity table (above) on square B4. The difference (Δ) of column 2 from 175 corresponds to column 3. Each row or column with empty cells on B4 requires 2 sets of pairs that sum to the number on column 3 of the parity table. Each pair of numbers for the 7x7 square is either n2, n2+1 or n2+2, i.e., 49, 50 or 51. Also we see that we can classify these numbers under two groups, one in light blue (column 3) and one pink.
  8. In order for the pairs to conform to parity, those pairs required are listed in column 4 of the parity table and compared to parity in column 5. Those that do not conform are struck out.
  9. Fill in the empty cells with pairs of numbers from the 7x7 complementary table. For example, line 1 having 10+40=50 (E Parity), requires the pair 12+38=50 (E Parity), as listed in the first line of the parity table along with their complements.
  10. To fill up the magic square we notice that Square B4 may be filled in a simple manner. Here is where we modify the method somewhat. Where the last entries (in light blue) of the columns coincide with the last entries of the rows also in light blue the cell is colored yellow. It is into these cells that the first number from the complementary pairs is placed. See Square B4.
  11. The reason we follow this route is that as the squares get larger it gets more and more difficult to assign numbers to cells. This method removes that ambiguity and produces consistent results, since we now force the assignment. It is still possible to assign numbers to cells without using this method and arrive at different squares, but several other s steps must be taken as is done in The Reverse Wheel Method XI.
  12. B4
    175
    22 7 46 75100
    23 8 45 7699
    24 9 44 7798
    49 48 47 25 3 2 1 175
    6 41 26 73102
    5 42 27 74 101
    4 43 28 75 100
    757677 175 7374 75175
    1009998 102101100
    B5
    175
    22 10 12 7 38 40 46 175
    23 8 45 76
    24 9 44 77
    49 48 47 25 3 2 1 175
    6 41 26 73
    5 42 27 74
    4 39 37 43 13 11 28 175
    75125126 175 124125 75175
    B6
    175
    22 10 12 7 38 40 46 175
    16 23 8 45 33 125
    14 24 9 44 35 126
    49 48 47 25 3 2 1 175
    36 6 41 26 15 124
    34 5 42 27 17 125
    4 39 37 43 13 11 28 175
    175125126 175 124125 175175
  13. After filling in the first and last rows and columns (Square B6), fill in the internal cells using parity and the color code. This produces first B7 and finally B8.
B7
175
22 10 12 7 38 40 46 175
16 23 18 8 32 45 33 175
14 24 9 44 35 126
49 48 47 25 3 2 1 175
36 6 41 26 15 124
34 5 31 42 19 27 17 175
4 39 37 43 13 11 28 175
175125175 175 175125 175175
B8
175
22 10 12 7 38 40 46 175
16 23 18 8 32 45 33 175
14 20 24 9 44 29 35 175
49 48 47 25 3 2 1 175
36 30 6 41 26 21 15 175
34 5 31 42 19 27 17 175
4 39 37 43 13 11 28 175
175175175 175 175175 175175
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25
49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26

This completes the Magic Square Wheel method. The next web page contains variants 2, 3 and 4. A new Reverse Wheel Method is now listed online.
Go back to homepage.


Copyright © 2008 by Eddie N Gutierrez. E-Mail: Fiboguti89@Yahoo.com